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He directed much of his attention to ambitious construction projects and luxurious dwellings for himself, and initiated the construction of two aqueducts in Rome: the Aqua Claudia and the Anio Novus.

During his reign, the empire annexed the client kingdom of Mauretania as a province. In early 41, Caligula was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy by officers of the Praetorian Guard , senators , and courtiers.

The conspirators' attempt to use the opportunity to restore the Roman Republic was thwarted, however. On the day of the assassination of Caligula, the Praetorians declared Caligula's uncle, Claudius , the next Roman emperor.

Although the Julio-Claudian dynasty continued to rule the empire until the fall of his nephew Nero in 68, Caligula's death marked the official end of the Julii Caesares in the male line.

Gaius Julius Caesar named in honour of his famous relative was born in Antium modern Anzio and Nettuno [2] on 31 August 12 AD, the third of six surviving children born to Germanicus and his second cousin Agrippina the Elder.

Through Agrippina, Augustus was the maternal great-grandfather of Gaius. As a boy of just two or three, Gaius accompanied his father, Germanicus , on campaigns in the north of Germania.

Suetonius claims that Germanicus was poisoned in Syria by an agent of Tiberius , who viewed Germanicus as a political rival.

After the death of his father, Caligula lived with his mother until her relations with Tiberius deteriorated. The adolescent Caligula was then sent to live with his great-grandmother and Tiberius's mother Livia.

In 31, Caligula was remanded to the personal care of Tiberius on Capri , where he lived for six years. Caligula claimed to have planned to kill Tiberius with a dagger to avenge his mother and brother: however, having brought the weapon into Tiberius's bedroom he did not kill the Emperor but instead threw the dagger down on the floor.

Supposedly Tiberius knew of this but never dared to do anything about it. In 33, Tiberius gave Caligula an honorary quaestorship , a position he held until his rise to emperor.

In 35, Caligula was named joint heir to Tiberius's estate along with Tiberius Gemellus. When Tiberius died on 16 March 37 AD, his estate and the titles of the principate were left to Caligula and Tiberius's own grandson, Gemellus , who were to serve as joint heirs.

Although Tiberius was 77 and on his death bed, some ancient historians still conjecture that he was murdered.

Caligula accepted the powers of the principate as conferred by the Senate and entered Rome on 28 March amid a crowd that hailed him as "our baby" and "our star", among other nicknames.

Caligula's first acts were said to be generous in spirit, though many were political in nature. In October 37, Caligula fell seriously ill, or perhaps was poisoned.

He soon recovered from his illness, but many believed that the illness turned the young emperor toward the diabolical: he started to kill off or exile those who were close to him or whom he saw as a serious threat.

Perhaps his illness reminded him of his mortality and of the desire of others to advance into his place. She is said to have committed suicide, although Suetonius hints that Caligula actually poisoned her.

He had his father-in-law Marcus Junius Silanus and his brother-in-law Marcus Lepidus executed as well. His uncle Claudius was spared only because Caligula preferred to keep him as a laughing stock.

His favourite sister Julia Drusilla died in 38 of a fever: his other two sisters, Livilla and Agrippina the Younger , were exiled.

He hated being the grandson of Agrippa and slandered Augustus by repeating a falsehood that his mother was actually conceived as the result of an incestuous relationship between Augustus and his daughter Julia the Elder.

In 38, Caligula focused his attention on political and public reform. He published the accounts of public funds, which had not been made public during the reign of Tiberius.

He aided those who lost property in fires, abolished certain taxes, and gave out prizes to the public at gymnastic events. He allowed new members into the equestrian and senatorial orders.

Perhaps most significantly, he restored the practice of democratic elections. During the same year, though, Caligula was criticized for executing people without full trials and for forcing the Praetorian prefect, Macro, to commit suicide.

Macro had fallen out of favor with the emperor, probably due to an attempt to ally himself with Gemellus when it appeared that Caligula might die of fever.

According to Cassius Dio , a financial crisis emerged in Ancient historians state that Caligula began falsely accusing, fining and even killing individuals for the purpose of seizing their estates.

Historians describe a number of Caligula's other desperate measures. To gain funds, Caligula asked the public to lend the state money.

The current and past highway commissioners were accused of incompetence and embezzlement and forced to repay money. However, some historians have shown scepticism towards the large number of sesterces quoted by Suetonius and Dio.

According to Wilkinson, Caligula's use of precious metals to mint coins throughout his principate indicates that the treasury most likely never fell into bankruptcy.

A brief famine of unknown extent occurred, perhaps caused by this financial crisis, but Suetonius claims it resulted from Caligula's seizure of public carriages; [46] according to Seneca, grain imports were disrupted because Caligula re-purposed grain boats for a pontoon bridge.

Despite financial difficulties, Caligula embarked on a number of construction projects during his reign. Some were for the public good, though others were for himself.

Josephus describes Caligula's improvements to the harbours at Rhegium and Sicily , allowing increased grain imports from Egypt, as his greatest contributions.

Caligula completed the temple of Augustus and the theatre of Pompey and began an amphitheatre beside the Saepta.

At Syracuse , he repaired the city walls and the temples of the gods. In 39, Caligula performed a spectacular stunt by ordering a temporary floating bridge to be built using ships as pontoons , stretching for over two miles from the resort of Baiae to the neighbouring port of Puteoli.

Caligula had two large ships constructed for himself which were recovered from the bottom of Lake Nemi around The ships were among the largest vessels in the ancient world.

The smaller ship was designed as a temple dedicated to Diana. The larger ship was essentially an elaborate floating palace with marble floors and plumbing.

In 39, relations between Caligula and the Roman Senate deteriorated. A number of factors, though, aggravated this feud. The Senate had become accustomed to ruling without an emperor between the departure of Tiberius for Capri in 26 and Caligula's accession.

Caligula reviewed Tiberius' records of treason trials and decided, based on their actions during these trials, that numerous senators were not trustworthy.

Soon after his break with the Senate, Caligula faced a number of additional conspiracies against him. In 40, Caligula expanded the Roman Empire into Mauretania and made a significant attempt at expanding into Britannia — even challenging Neptune in his campaign.

The conquest of Britannia was later achieved during the reign of his successor, Claudius. Mauretania was a client kingdom of Rome ruled by Ptolemy of Mauretania.

Caligula invited Ptolemy to Rome and then suddenly had him executed. Details on the Mauretanian events of 39—44 are unclear.

Cassius Dio wrote an entire chapter on the annexation of Mauretania by Caligula, but it is now lost. There seems to have been a northern campaign to Britannia that was aborted.

Modern historians have put forward numerous theories in an attempt to explain these actions. This trip to the English Channel could have merely been a training and scouting mission.

When several client kings came to Rome to pay their respects to him and argued about their nobility of descent, he allegedly cried out the Homeric line: [81] "Let there be one lord, one king.

Caligula began appearing in public dressed as various gods and demigods such as Hercules , Mercury , Venus and Apollo. A sacred precinct was set apart for his worship at Miletus in the province of Asia and two temples were erected for worship of him in Rome.

Caligula had the heads removed from various statues of gods located across Rome and replaced them with his own. Indeed, he was represented as a sun god on Egyptian coins.

Caligula's religious policy was a departure from that of his predecessors. According to Cassius Dio , living emperors could be worshipped as divine in the east and dead emperors could be worshipped as divine in Rome.

Caligula needed to quell several riots and conspiracies in the eastern territories during his reign. Aiding him in his actions was his good friend, Herod Agrippa , who became governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis after Caligula became emperor in The cause of tensions in the east was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture , Roman Law and the rights of Jews in the empire.

Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists.

In 39, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas , the tetrarch of Galilee and Perea , of planning a rebellion against Roman rule with the help of Parthia.

Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories. Riots again erupted in Alexandria in 40 between Jews and Greeks.

The Governor of Syria, Publius Petronius , fearing civil war if the order were carried out, delayed implementing it for nearly a year.

In Rome, another statue of himself, of colossal size, was made of gilt brass for the purpose. Philo of Alexandria and Seneca the Younger , contemporaries of Caligula, describe him as an insane emperor who was self-absorbed, short-tempered, killed on a whim, and indulged in too much spending and sex.

While repeating the earlier stories, the later sources of Suetonius and Cassius Dio provide additional tales of insanity. They accuse Caligula of incest with his sisters, Agrippina the Younger , Drusilla , and Livilla , and say he prostituted them to other men.

The validity of these accounts is debatable. In Roman political culture, insanity and sexual perversity were often presented hand-in-hand with poor government.

Caligula's actions as emperor were described as being especially harsh to the Senate, to the nobility and to the equestrian order.

The situation had escalated when, in 40, Caligula announced to the Senate that he planned to leave Rome permanently and to move to Alexandria in Egypt, where he hoped to be worshipped as a living god.

The prospect of Rome losing its emperor and thus its political power was the final straw for many. Such a move would have left both the Senate and the Praetorian Guard powerless to stop Caligula's repression and debauchery.

With this in mind Chaerea convinced his fellow conspirators, who included Marcus Vinicius and Lucius Annius Vinicianus , to put their plot into action quickly.

According to Josephus, Chaerea had political motivations for the assassination. On 22 January 41 Suetonius gives the date as 24 January , Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen accosted Caligula as he addressed an acting troupe of young men beneath the palace, during a series of games and dramatics being held for the Divine Augustus.

The Germanic guard, stricken with grief and rage, responded with a rampaging attack on the assassins, conspirators, innocent senators and bystanders alike.

The cryptoporticus underground corridor beneath the imperial palaces on the Palatine Hill where this event took place was discovered by archaeologists in The senate attempted to use Caligula's death as an opportunity to restore the Republic.

After a soldier, Gratus , found Claudius hiding behind a palace curtain, he was spirited out of the city by a sympathetic faction of the Praetorian Guard [] to their nearby camp.

Claudius became emperor after procuring the support of the Praetorian Guard. Claudius granted a general amnesty, although he executed a few junior officers involved in the conspiracy, including Chaerea.

He was buried within the Mausoleum of Augustus ; in , during the Sack of Rome , the ashes in the tomb were scattered. The facts and circumstances of Caligula's reign are mostly lost to history.

Only two sources contemporary with Caligula have survived — the works of Philo and Seneca. Philo's works, On the Embassy to Gaius and Flaccus , give some details on Caligula's early reign, but mostly focus on events surrounding the Jewish population in Judea and Egypt with whom he sympathizes.

Seneca's various works give mostly scattered anecdotes on Caligula's personality. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in AD 39 likely due to his associations with conspirators.

At one time, there were detailed contemporaneous histories on Caligula, but they are now lost. Additionally, the historians who wrote them are described as biased, either overly critical or praising of Caligula.

A few of the contemporaneous historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus and Cluvius Rufus both wrote condemning histories on Caligula that are now lost.

Fabius Rusticus was a friend of Seneca who was known for historical embellishment and misrepresentation.

Caligula's sister, Agrippina the Younger , wrote an autobiography that certainly included a detailed explanation of Caligula's reign, but it too is lost.

Agrippina was banished by Caligula for her connection to Marcus Lepidus , who conspired against him. Gaetulicus , a poet, produced a number of flattering writings about Caligula, but they are lost.

The bulk of what is known of Caligula comes from Suetonius and Cassius Dio. Suetonius wrote his history on Caligula 80 years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over years after Caligula's death.

Cassius Dio's work is invaluable because it alone gives a loose chronology of Caligula's reign. A handful of other sources add a limited perspective on Caligula.

Josephus gives a detailed description of Caligula's assassination. Tacitus provides some information on Caligula's life under Tiberius. He left the choreographer to pay for the meal, saying he had forgotten to bring enough money.

McDowell offered her a signet ring, a prop from the film. She refused because it belonged to the production company. Brass decided not to focus much on Danilo Donati's elaborate sets, and intentionally kept the Penthouse Pets in the background during sex scenes.

He focused instead on women whom Guccione considered to be unattractive. Filming concluded on 24 December His rough-cut was disassembled afterwards and the film was edited by several editors, changing its tone and structure significantly by removing and re-arranging many scenes, using different takes, a slower editing style and music other than Brass intended.

Guccione and Lui "hired a skeleton crew, snuck back into the studios at night, raided the prop room" [17] and shot hardcore sex scenes to edit into the film.

Even though there were a number of editors on the film, their names were not credited. Instead, the credit "Editing by the Production" is given during the opening credits.

Peter O'Toole was reluctant to re-record his English dialogue when it was needed. He stayed away from the film's producers until he finally agreed to re-record his dialogue in a Canadian recording studio.

The film was scored by Bruno Nicolai under the name Paul Clemente. In the United States, Guccione refused to submit Caligula to the MPAA because he did not want the film to receive a rating—even X —which he considered to be "demeaning".

Rather than leasing prints to exhibitors, the distributor rented theaters that specialized in foreign and art films for the purpose of screening Caligula exclusively [40] in order to keep the film out of theaters that showed pornographic films.

The script was adapted into a novelization written by William Johnston under the pseudonym William Howard. In , when Guccione tried to import the film's footage into the U.

Federal officials did not declare the film to be obscene. In Boston , authorities seized the film. Atlanta prosecutors threatened legal action if the film was to be screened in the city, but experts testified in court on behalf of the film, and Atlanta, too, declared that the film was not obscene.

The film was banned in Australia, where it continues to be banned in its uncut form as of [update]. On appeal, court vacated the award, ruling that punitive damages were not allowed by the law governing the case.

Caligula received generally negative reviews. Ebert wrote, "In the two hours of this film that I saw, there were no scenes of joy, natural pleasure, or good sensual cheer.

There was, instead, a nauseating excursion into base and sad fantasies. Caligula continued to garner negative reception long after its release.

The site's critical consensus reads, "Endlessly perverse and indulgent, Caligula throws in hardcore sex every time the plot threatens to get interesting.

Writers for The Hamilton Spectator and St. Louis Post-Dispatch said Caligula was one of the worst films they'd seen.

Club , Keith Phipps said, "As a one-of-a-kind marriage of the historical epic and the porn film Caligula deserves a look. But it might be better to let Guccione's savagely unpleasant folly fade into the century that spawned it".

Caligula is considered to be a " cult classic ". In , Caligula was released on DVD and Blu-ray in an "Imperial Edition", [63] which featured the unrated theatrical release version and a new version featuring alternative sequencing from the original theatrical release and without the explicit sexual content shot by Guccione, marking the first attempt to reconstruct the film into a version closer to Brass' intentions.

This edition also includes audio commentaries featuring Malcolm McDowell and Helen Mirren, and interviews with the cast and crew.

In February , Penthouse announced that a new cut of the film was being edited by Alexander Tuschinski. The film explores his relationship to Caligula , the process of reconstructing Brass's vision and Penthouse CEO Kelly Holland 's backing of the project.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Caligula US film poster [1]. Penthouse Films International Felix Cinematografica.

Release date. Running time. What shall it profit a man if he should gain the whole world and lose his own soul? Paul Clemente.

The Saga of the Unmaking of Caligula. Centro di studi di cultura, promozione e difusione del cinema: What Wild Ecstasy.

Simon and Schuster. Retrieved June 9, Archived from the original PDF on March 4, Retrieved August 26, Retrieved January 5, Penthouse : —, — Archived from the original on August 8, Wilson; Maria Colavito; Djoymi Baker The Encyclopedia of Epic Films.

Scarecrow Press. March 26, Time magazine. January 3, Martin's Press. Porter Dictionary of Biblical Criticism and Interpretation. University of California Press.

Hollywood's Ancient Worlds. February 25, Retrieved September 9, Nielsen Business Media, Inc.

November 15, Jerry Osborne Enterprises. November 21, Cambridge University Press. Brazilian National Cinema. Vedral Uncle John's Third Bathroom Reader.

Cinema Houston: From Nickelodeon to Megaplex. University of Texas Press. Robert Cettl. Penthouse International, Ltd.

And Robert C. Guccione, Respondents-Appellants". Retrieved January 19, Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 3, Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on January 8, Retrieved February 1, Monthly Film Bulletin.

British Film Institute.

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